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28
tion . The clergy and those de–
voted to a life of abstinence and
celibacy were looked upon as a
privileged class. Emphasi wa
placed on rank, status, and the
rule of the church hierarchy.
Problems were usually re–
solved by an appeal to author–
ity rather than with the
exercise of any individual initia–
tive. There was no incentive to
look for new olutions, idea , or
experiment with creative in–
novations. The fee ling wa that
BIRS NIMRUD,
traditional site
of the Tower of Babel, from
whence state-approved religion
originated.
The White Horse: False Religion
every question already had an
answer; all one had to do wa
find it.
Rule1·s wel"e no longer to
blame for wretched economic or
social conditions.
If
any one
was at fault, it was the com–
plaining individual.
utTering
and misery , according to the
theology of the day, were neces-
ary in order for man to atone
for his guilt in this life. Inevita–
bly, the oppres ed multitude
became re igned to a world
they could not change.
With such a heavy empha is
on personal guilt, t he church
came up with an ideal olution:
the priestly confessional. As it